Editorial Reviews. Review. "A history and how-to guide that's been a fringe top seller. Opium for the Masses: Harvesting Nature's Best Pain Medication - Kindle edition by Jim Hogshire. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | This article used data from descriptive background to examine the view Keywords: Religion; opium; masses; contemporary; Karl Marx. PDF | In this case study of the impact of West German television on public support for the East German communist regime, we evaluate the.
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𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., constitutes one of the most widely exploited psychoactive substances in human history. Keywords: Religion; opium; masses; contemporary; Karl Marx. 1. INTRODUCTION thought have emerged to study and attempt to understand the role of religion. RELIGION IS THE OPIUM OF MASSES: REVIEWING MARXIST CLAIM THROUGH ISLAMIC HOLY SCRIPTURE QURAN. Shaheer Ellahi. Dr. Abid G. Chaudhry.
Marx proposes that we not start from arguing in a theological standpoint, but instead, see religion as a position to be considered by the state.
Hence, criticizing religion includes the criticism of state. What happens next would be towards the intervention in the state, which is to equivalent to altering the status of religion in the society.
Just as different affairs and ideologies are included within a political society, man must learn to act responsibility according to the position he is given in the society; whereabout, religion becomes a private matter for the individual. Although for some, it may be the case that man must sacrifice some of his religion-imposed rights and behaviors in order to receive general secular rights from the state.
The state then, must take into account the majority of the people who are not Jews, and treat persons of all faiths with equity in the eyes of the general.
It becomes a problem when religious privileges already trample on the basic rights of other people. Hence, Marx is justified for arguing that specifically in Germany, the foundation of all critique is the critique of 4 Ibid. Secularism then becomes necessary. Additionally, for state secularism, this is effective inasmuch as all men are able to engage in their personal religiosity more freely, but responsibly. Whichever religion a person may adhere to, he has the right to enjoy the autonomy of being a devotee, although this must also consider the other faiths which is also included in the similar society.
Marx grounds our conception of reality from what is really happening — from a historical and materialistic viewpoint. As a professes atheist, it is no surprise that he would conceive of such position.
The present economic system can be analyzed from the vantage point of the creation of means of production.
In history, earlier modes of production underwent the process of evolution, thus, giving birth to new ones. By productive we mean that the kind of activities that a man engages are those which exercises, empowers, and gives significance to the development of his potentials as a human person.
Social relationships are hence external manifestations of the internal interpretations regarding the way life should be ordered — including history, law, and religion. If this is true, then the interpretation of morality is only effective inasmuch as it is an engagement between economic forces whose rule is to follow the dictates of the present economic system.
Capitalism shapes our spiritual and life values, just as it affects all other aspects of the superstructure. The term to describe this interpretation of life structures is called ideology. It has been suggested that these juglets imitate the shape of an inverted opium poppy capsule as a way to announce the contents , and their decoration represents the knife incisions made on actual poppy heads to allow opium latex to ooze out for collection Merrillees Indeed, traces of opium alkaloids have been reported on some potsherds corresponding to Base-ring ware Bisset et al.
The Origins of Inebriation: The earliest testimonies of the use of alcohol and drugs suggest that inebriation is a long-established habit, the origins of which can be traced back to prehistory. Traces highly suggestive of fermented beverages and remains of psychoactive plants have been recovered from archaeological sites throughout prehistoric Europe.
This paper surveys the history of these substances from a cultural approach based on the contexts of consumption. A wide range of documents will be examined here macrofossil remains of psychoactive plants, residues of fermented beverages, alkaloids in archaeological items and artistic depictions, among others. Considering that these sensory-altering products are mainly found in tombs and ceremonial places, they seem to be strongly connected to ritual usages.
Far from being consumed for hedonistic purposes, it can therefore be argued that drug plants and alcoholic drinks had a sacred role among prehistoric societies. Knossian gifts?
Nov A commemorative scarab bearing the name of Amenhotep III and related to the first Jubilee Sed festival in his thirtieth regnal year was found alongside the cups, providing further chronological evidence.
This article examines the Late Minoan IIIA1 cups from Beth-Shemesh within their Aegean context and emphasises their close affinity with comparable cups from the palace of Knossos, catalogued and republished here.
The article also considers the biography of the two Minoan cups, as social agents within the intricate network of the Late Bronze Age palatial gift exchange in the eastern Mediterranean.
While it is possible that the cups came to Beth-Shemesh directly from Knossos, another viable option is that they arrived as a gift from the Egyptian court.
Traces of the Past: Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology Through Chemistry. Joseph B. Lambert Garman Harbottle. Temples of Bronze Age Margiana: Traditions of ritual architecture.
Jun Archaeological evidence for the tradition of psychoactive plant use In the old world. A twelfth-century BC opium pipe from Kition. Vassos Karageorghis. The presence of opium in a 3, year-old cypriot base-ring juglet. Jan It contains strong imaginary and affective dimensions, both of which play a crucial role in the organization of both compliance and defiance of subjects in capitalism.
In the absence of any concrete relation within the political community, or due to the existence of political community as an imagined communal being against egoistic relations dominant in civil society, religion arose as the most important sphere for the canalization of affections and imaginations.
This shows that there is a substantial link between the way religion functions in capitalist society and the organization of modern society.
Part of the answer lies in the bond between the critique of religion, political society, and economic relations, as incisively argued by Dobbs-Weinstein. The critique of religion cannot be restricted to the religious sphere.
In that context, any critique that aims to displace and challenge generalized conventions, should start from a critique of religion, since religion contains an archetype of modern opinion formation, and management of mass psychology, as a sphere of belief, imaginations, and emotions. In its relation to human freedom and democracy, both Spinoza and Marx underline this character of religion, as succinctly discussed by Dobbs-Weinstein.
For the emancipation of the human mind from generalized conventions, opinions, imposed prejudices, and reactionary emotional states, the link between religion, political economy, and politics should initially be discovered.
Rather, he politically analyses how religion functions in a secular capitalist society to open the way for human emancipation. For these reasons, the true realization of human essence, the real overcoming of religion, cannot be reduced to the discovery of an inverted human essence within religion, as Feuerbach suggested; rather, it depends on the analysis of historical and political relations, which condition this process of inversion permanently.
References Turner, Denys.