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Read Historia de las guerras. Read Historia romana. Libros L-LX: More-exotic forms of alternative energy are plagued with even greater problems. Fuel cells cannot be made practical, because such devices require hydrogen derived from fossil fuels coal or natural gas , if we exclude designs that will never escape the realm of science fiction; if fuel cells ever became popular, the fossil fuels they require would then be consumed even faster than they are now.
Biomass energy perhaps from wood or corn would require impossibly large amounts of land and would still result in insufficient quantities of net energy, perhaps even negative quantities. Hydroelectric dams are reaching their practical limits. Wind and geothermal power are only effective in certain areas and for certain purposes.
Nuclear power will soon be suffering from a lack of fuel and is already creating serious environmental dangers. The current favorite for alternative energy is solar power, but proponents must close their eyes to all questions of scale. The production and maintenance of this array would require vast quantities of hydrocarbons, metals, and other materials — a self-defeating process.
Modern agriculture is highly dependent on fossil fuels for fertilizers, pesticides, and the operation of machines for harvesting, processing, and transporting. The Green Revolution amounted to little more than the invention of a way to turn petroleum and natural gas into food.
Without fossil fuels, modern methods of food production will disappear, and crop yields will be far less than at present. Because of the shortage of food, world population must shrink dramatically, but we conveniently forget that war, plague, and famine are the only means available.
This planet has only a finite amount of fossil fuel. A map of recent American military ventures is a map of petroleum deposits. This, clearly exemplified by schools, happens every day in every social contact, with all the people, groups and institutions that we meet daily and that can help to support or to deny the national discourse, for instance, in benefit of a subnational conception.
To avoid fissures and to believe in the nation as unquestionable, it has to be in everything that we are, in our daily life, in the media, in the churches, in the soccer fields, in schools, as well as in theaters, queues in the supermarket and at ATMs.
Here the concept of coherence is essential: to make the nation something powerful and natural, it has to be coherent with a large part of the discourses, practices, values and organizations that sustain and reproduce it in an important part of the world in which we live. If this coherence does not exist, the subject immediately doubts rationally or feels unease, something is not right, there is something that is not natural and that can be questioned and changed.
The main task of nationalism is to become quotidian, and that means to be coherent with the world of the people it wants to nationalize; if not, it will never be effective. It also has to become real in the thoughts, feelings and actions of the people. Catalanism and a quest for the nation The role of cultural practices and civil society is central, as we have seen, in the creation of a cultural machine able to develop, reproduce and change the feelings, thoughts and ways of doing things of the common people.
This machine can be an accomplice or a foe of the nationalization project of the State; as we stated above, a top-down machine necessarily needs a bottom-up to be effective. In the Catalan case, although it may only be par- tially generalized, the relation between cultural and political nationalism can be plainly traced throughout the 19th and 20th century.
Disputes between Spanish and Catalan nationalism have always exist- ed in this period, sometimes more clearly, others more covertly The cultural nationalism set up by Catalanism during this period generates in the begin- ning of the 20th century a political project: the Mancomunitat de Catalunya The Second Spanish Republic was an attempt to work with the plurinational reality of Spain and to accept that every nation of the feder- ation could develop as it wanted.
The internal and external problems, the rise 21 We believe that this can be a good hypothesis to work in an alternative way the prob- lem of nationalization.
We have to consider the important role of civil society in the reproduction or challenge of the national discourse of the State, based on every territory and historical period. If we do that, we will find unexpected things.
With the arrival of the transition to democracy, these cultural projects fed the political processes and in Catalonia a nationalist party won the elections in In this brief itinerary we see the relationship between the cultural and the political projects of nationalism, sometimes carried out by the political institutions and sometimes by civil society. The idea of nationalism also changed due to Francoism; the national idea of the Second Republic was ethnic and regionalist, not separatist, it wanted to change and to modernize Spain.
With Francoism, Catalanism became a civic movement in defense of the Catalan language and culture; this new civic nationalism used a democratic discourse as a means of legitimization At the end of Francoism, after 40 years of dictatorial attrition and a decline of the 20th century, the possibility of outlawing or defeating the adversary by armed force became increasingly unthinkable; it was the time of culture In the 19th century, they operated by spreading the Catalan language and literature, searching for their traditional roots and developing a new sense of pride towards all things considered Catalan.
This project spanned over 50 years in a context of social and econom- ic growth for Catalonia due to the Industrial Revolution That means not just to create a national poetry but also a national feeling of belonging, clearly distinct from the Spanish one. For that reason, we are certain that we have to study civil society, cultural practices and culture as something quo- tidian to better understand how these cultural machines generate the ideas and experiences of a nation.
We suggest that there is a close relation between cultural practices mainly sardanes, human towers and bullfighting and na- tionalistic processes. There is no logical relation between nation and state, Switzerland is the classic example.
But in this case, the creation of an indubitable feeling of belonging to a nation, the creation of an intellectual community and of a new dignity has created the conditions of possibility for this new proposal.
The new solidified national Catalan culture, the problems arising from the eco- nomic and political crisis represented by the political parties in Spain and the idea that Catalans could manage these problems better, are some of the reasons mentioned. The work carried out by civil society, parallel to politi- cal proposals, was fundamental for achieving the current situation. During Francoism, the Catalan nation did not exist; it was just a regional difference, an exception in the unified Spain of Franco.
With the Transition and the arrival of democracy, the idea of Catalonia, now one of the seventeen Autonomous Communities of Spain, has been changing until it became what is generally believed today, that Catalonia is a nation. This long process — it took more than 40 years of nation-building processes — makes the people that live in this territory today strongly believe that the Catalan nation is a reality.
In the last few years, Catalonia has been demanding to participate in the mechanisms of decision-making in Spain, but the centralized state and the bipolar party system does not allow it to make its proposals a reality. When Catalonia has the dignity of a nation and it feels that nothing can be done to change Spain, it considers that its belonging to this state has finished.
This is the moment of a new Catalanist project: the Catalan nation needs to create its own state to survive and to develop as Catalanists say. To do that, it needs to transform the Spanish national feeling of belonging of the people living in Catalonia and that can be done only through cultural processes.